Freudian theory of Personality – Content for B.ED from MDU syllabus of paper II unit III (LLC)
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The term Psychoanalysis as used for the first time by Sigmund Freud to refers to the method he used to dig deep into the underlying causes of behavior and personality. He studied medicine in Vienna, Austria and began his career as a surgeon. After taking a course in psychiatry, freud shifted his interest to the treatment of patients suffering from Hyshria – a nervous disorder of memory- lapse with fainting spells and suspension of normal activity. He came to know that hysteria was a psychical disorder which required psychological treatment. He collaborated with Bruer and used Hypnosis to dig out the deep rooted arises.
Freud found hypnosis ineffective and hence abandoned it in favour of encouraging his patients to speak freely and report whatever thoughts they had in their thinking. Freud termed this Free Association. The patient was asked to relax on a couch in a room free from distraction and urged to speak out all thoughts without inhibition on modification
This underground journey was pretty exciting as it unearthed a lot of hitherto forbidden thoughts. Some of the events and episodes even quiet embarrassing to face since these was loaded with a good deal of anxiety. By establishing Rapport a cordial relationship with the patient based on trust and confidence, Freud was able to excavate a lot of hostile feeling and emotions. This CATHARSIS the outpouring of pent-up feeling brought relief from hystera. Thus the credit of brining the Unconscious to the Conscious goes squarely to Freud. On the credit of his clinical analysis Freud formulated a theory of personality using a number of HYPOTHETICAL CONSTRUCTS. We may not be able to find objective proof for the existence of a number of constructs used by Freud. But Freud’s theories are immensely useful in the treatment of conflicts and neurotic disorders.
ID , Ego And Superego
According to Freud, personality is made up of thee dynamic forces, namely the ID, the EGO and the Superego. They interact closely with one another and determine the personality of the individual.
ID: The basic building blocks with which every individual is endowed at birth, according to Freud comprise the untamed, uncivilized, blind, instinctual impulses always seeking immediate of gratification of need, regardless of social approval or disapproval Thus ID is – primitive, selfish and destructive. It lends itself for expansion like “I Demand “ ”I Desire” the first two letters of the world “ I DIQT” as well.
Logical laws of thought do not apply to the ID contrary impulses exit site by site, without canceling each other out. The ID in the reservoir of energy , which frued called LIBIDO for the whole personality.
Freud likened the ID to a ‘salting cauldron’ which contained ever bubbling primitive urges and desires. He believed that these urges indiscriminately sought expression in external reality. The ID even thus conceived of as “amoral” since it is even unconcerned with the niceties and ‘convention of society. During early infancy parents are usually permissive and tolerant, Hence ID enjoys unbridled expression the baby especially the first one to parents, can demand anything and get it. ID operates according to the first one to the ‘pleasure principal, “the aim of these impulses are always immediate, and complete satisfaction, the pleasure principal appeared to be an outgrowth of the concept of philosophical HEDONISM , a doctrine which states that people always strive to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.
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